Measuring the level of DRM Mainstreaming in city governance and development processes as well as tracking the effectiveness of urban risk management investments are challenges faced by cities. Therefore, to assist our partner cities in addressing these challenges, EMI developed the Disaster Risk Resilience Indicators (DRRI) and the Urban Disaster Risk Indicators (UDRI).
The indicators in the DRRI are divided into 5 key areas*, which are aligned with the elements of the Hyogo Framework for Action and the UNISDR 10 Essentials for Making Cities Resilient.
The UDRI is a tool that communicates the level of risk to city stakeholders and promotes discussion on the elements that influence urban risk. Through the UDRI, a total risk index can be developed for a particular city by looking at both physical descriptors of risk (e.g., population, roads, critical and high-loss facilities to be affected) and indicators of social fragility and coping capacity (e.g. population density, social disparity, crime rate, number of hospital beds, development level). The changes in these descriptors and indicators can be tracked over time to determine if a city is reducing or accumulating risk.
The DRRI and UDRI have been used successfully in several projects that have benefited key cities:
- Bangladesh Urban Earthquake Resilience Project (Dhaka);
- Building a Disaster Resilient Quezon City Project (Philippines);
- Capacity Needs Assessment for Disaster Preparedness and Response (Philippines);
- Disaster Risk Management Master Plan (Amman, Jordan);
- Disaster Risk Reduction in Greater Mumbai (India);
- Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in Megacities (Makati City, Philippines and Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal)
- Pasig City Resilience to Earthquakes and Floods (Philippines)
*Legal and Institutional Processes and Policies; Public Awareness and Capacity Building; Critical Services and Infrastructure Resiliency; Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Planning; and Development Planning, Regulation, and Risk Mitigation.